Pluripotent adult stem cells
Heart failure after myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Existing medical and interventional therapies can only reduce the loss of cardiomyocytes during myocardial infarction but are unable to replenish the permanent loss of cardiomyocytes after the insult, which contributes to progressive pathological left ventricular remodeling and progressive heart failure. As a result, cell-based therapies using multipotent adult stem cells and pluripotent stem cells embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells have been explored as potential therapeutic approaches to restore cardiac function in heart failure. Nevertheless, the optimal cell type with the best therapeutic efficacy and safety for heart regeneration is still unknown.
New method for turning skin cells into pluripotent stem cells
Where Do We Get Adult Stem Cells? « Boston Children's Hospital
There are several ways adult stem cells can be isolated, most of which are being actively explored by our researchers. Adult stem cells have been found in the brain, bone marrow , blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, and other although not all organs and tissues. They are thought to live in a specific area of each tissue, where they may remain dormant for years, dividing and creating new cells only when they are activated by tissue injury, disease or anything else that makes the body need more cells. Adult stem cells can be isolated from the body in different ways, depending on the tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells , which can make bone, cartilage, fat, fibrous connective tissue, and cells that support the formation of blood can also be isolated from bone marrow.
Multipotent (adult) and pluripotent stem cells for heart regeneration: what are the pros and cons?
Gene expression-based scores used to predict risk in cancer frequently include genes coding for DNA replication, repair or recombination. Using two independent cohorts of and previously-untreated patients with Multiple Myeloma MM , we identified 50 cell cycle-unrelated genes overexpressed in multiple myeloma cells MMCs compared to normal human proliferating plasmablasts and non-proliferating bone marrow plasma cells and which have prognostic value for overall survival. These 37 genes shared by MMCs and adult or pluripotent stem cells were used to build a stem cell score SC score , which proved to be strongly prognostic in the 2 independent cohorts of patients compared to other gene expression-based risk scores or usual clinical scores using multivariate Cox analysis.
Our bodies consist of many different kinds of cells, each with their own role. The Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka had made earlier the discovery, earning the Nobel Prize in , that cells from adult skin can be converted to cells typical of early embryos, so-called induced pluripotent stem cells iPSC. This process is called reprogramming. Up till now, reprogramming has only been possible by introducing the critical genes for the conversion, called Yamanaka factors, artificially into skin cells where they are not normally active at all.